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Definition Of BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), or benign prostatic hyperplasia is a condition that causes swelling of the prostate gland, but not cancerous. The prostate gland has a function for producing semen and is located in the pelvis between the bladder and the penis.


Because the prostate gland is only held by men, then, of course, the whole BPH patients are male. Generally, men affected by this condition are over 50 years old.

symptoms of BPH

The following symptoms are usually felt by people with benign prostate enlargement (BPH):

  • Always wanted to urinate, especially at night.

  • Urinary incontinence or beser.

  • Difficulty in passing urine.

  • Straining during urination.

  • Halting the flow of urine.

  • Passing urine with blood.

  • Feeling complete after urination.

The emergence of these symptoms is caused by pressure on the bladder and urethra when the prostate gland enlargement.

It is advisable to see a doctor if you feel the symptoms of BPH, although mild. Diagnosis is necessary because there are several other conditions that are similar to the symptoms of BPH, including:

  • Prostatitis, or inflammation of the prostate.

  • Urinary tract infection.

  • Narrowing of the urethra.

  • Kidney stones and bladder stones.

  • Surgical scar on the neck of the bladder.

  • Bladder Cancer

  • Prostate cancer.

  • Disorders of the nerves that regulate the activity of the bladder.

The cause of BPH

Actually, the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is still unknown but is expected this condition occurs due to a change in the levels of sex hormone due to aging.

In the male urinary system, there is a channel that serves dispose of urine out of the body through the penis, or better known as the urethra. And urethra cross paths by chance past the prostate gland. If enlargement of the prostate gland, then gradually narrows the urethra and ultimately have a blockage of urine flow. This blockage will make the muscles of the bladder become enlarged and more powerful to push urine out.

Some factors that may increase a person's risk of BPH are:

  • Lack of exercise and obesity.

  • The aging factor.

  • Heart disease or diabetes.

  • The side effects of beta blocker drugs.

  • ancestry

The diagnosis of BPH

In diagnosing benign swelling of the prostate (BPH), the doctor will ask the symptoms experienced by the patient in advance:

  • What patients often weak urine flow or filtering?

  • How often patients feel urination is not fully completed?

  • How often wake up at night to urinate?

  • And how often patients were straining to begin urination?

  • Whether the patient is often hard to resist the urge to urinate?

  • Does the patient urinate more than once within a period of two hours?

To check the physical size of the prostate gland, the doctor will perform a digital rectal examination.

Further tests

There are several types of tests that can be done to diagnose BPH, among others:

  • A urine test. This test is done if the doctor suspects the symptoms experienced by the patient was not caused by BPH, but by other conditions, such as urinary tract infection or kidney stones.

  • Blood tests. The components are examined in this test is the protein prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is a protein produced by the prostate. If the patient's PSA level is high, then the chances of patients suffering from BPH was also great. If the increase occurs significantly, then the patient's chances of getting prostate cancer also exist.

  • The smooth flow of urine tests. In this examination, the doctor will insert a catheter equipped with a camera into the urinary tract of patients. Through the monitor, the doctor will be able to see the magnitude of the pressure in the bladder and how well the organ while the patient to urinate.

  • CT urogram. The method of examination is intended to determine the state of the patient's urinary tract, such as whether there is damage to the channel, or if there is a blockage caused by conditions other than BPH, such as bladder stones disease or kidney stones.

  • Transrectal ultrasound or ultrasound through the rectum. Through the examination that uses sound waves, doctors will get a picture of the prostate gland and surrounding parts in more detail, to determine whether the patient is suffering from BPH or other conditions such as cancer.

In addition to ensuring that the symptoms experienced by the patient is due to BPH and not caused by other conditions, further tests can also help physicians provide appropriate treatment.

treatment of BPH

Handling of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) grouped into two, namely the treatment of BPH with mild symptoms and treatment of BPH with symptoms of moderately to severely.

For mild cases of BPH is usually fairly manageable with medication, therapy holding urination, and lifestyle changes. Changes in lifestyle meant is to:

  • Start exercising regularly, such as walking up to one hour per day.

  • Began to reduce or stop consuming caffeine and alcohol.

  • Looking for the right to take medication schedule in order to avoid the nocturia or increased frequency of urination throughout the night.

  • Start getting used to not drinking anything two hours before bedtime to avoid nocturia or urination throughout the night.

BPH frequently used drugs are dutasteride and finasteride . Drugs which can reduce the size of the prostate and relieve the symptoms of BPH works by blocking the effects of the hormone dihydrotestosterone. But the use of these two drugs should not be arbitrary and must go through the instructions of a doctor because they have side effects serious enough. Some side effects of dutasteride and finasteride is a decrease in sperm count, impotence, and the risk of disability baby if you are woman pregnant while undergoing treatment with these two drugs.

In addition to dutasteride and finasteride, a drug other BPH is also often used a class of alpha inhibitors, such as alfuzosin and tamsulosin . Alpha inhibitor drug is usually combined with finasteride. This drug is able to accelerate the rate of urine by relaxing the muscles of the bladder. Side effects that may occur after taking alfuzosin and tamsulosin are the weakness, headache, and a decline in the quantity of sperm. For the more serious side effects, the two drugs are at risk of hypotension or low blood pressure, even fainting.

Therapy holding urination

This therapy is done under medical guidance. In this therapy, the patient will be taught how to resist the urge to urinate at least at intervals of two hours between each micturition, including taught how to regulate breathing, distract wanted to urinate, and muscle relaxation.

BPH Treatment with severe symptoms

The only way to handle BPH symptoms of moderately to severely is through surgery, namely:

  • Open prostatectomy surgery. In this procedure, the doctor will remove the prostate directly through the incision made in the abdomen. This procedure was initially regarded as the most effective procedure to treat severe cases of BPH. But with the advent of other methods, such as transurethral prostate surgery, open prostatectomy is rarely used today.

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The procedure is done with the help of an instrument called resectoscope aims to reduce the pressure on the bladder by removing excess prostate tissue. TURP surgery side effects are swelling of the urethra. Therefore, patients who underwent TURP usually will not be able to urinate normally for two days and had to be helped by using a catheter. This tool will be released doctor after urethral conditions recover. In addition to side effects, TURP surgery can also lead to complications such as retrograde ejaculation, the sperm will not flow through the penis but instead, goes into the bladder.

  • Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP). This procedure uses a tool similar to TURP, ie resectoscope. But in TUIP, doctors will expand channels urethra so urine can flow smoothly by making an incision at the junction between the muscle of the bladder and prostate. The side effects of this procedure are similar to TURP, the patient will not be able to urinate normally for a certain time and should be aided by using a catheter. This procedure had a lower risk of causing retrograde ejaculation.

complications BPH

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can sometimes lead to complications due to the inability of the bladder to empty urine. Some of the complications that may arise include:

  • Urinary tract infection.

  • Bladder stone disease.

  • Acute urinary retention or inability to urinate.

  • Damage to the bladder and kidneys.

Complications can arise when benign prostate enlargement that occurs is not treated effectively.

prevention BPH

According to the study, the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can be prevented by the consumption of foods rich in fiber and protein, and low in fat. Avoid the consumption of red meat. Here are examples of foods with high fiber content:

  • Green beans

  • Brown rice

  • Wheat

  • Broccoli

  • Cabbage

  • Radish

  • Spinach

  • Apple

Here are examples of food with high protein content:

  • Fish

  • Egg

  • Soybeans

  • Low-fat milk

  • Chicken breast

  • Cheese

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